Vocabulary

معانی حروف اختصار زبان انگلیسی

در یک دسته بندی سنتی کلیه ی صورت های که یک کلمه کوتاه شده به خود می گیرد را می توان Abbreviation نامید. گرچه امروزه طبق دسته بندی های جدید تر عموما کوتاه کردن یا اختصار در زبان انگلیسی به سه صورت انجام می شود:

Abbreviation: در این روش یک یا چند حرف از ابتدا، انتها یا وسط کلمات گزینش شده و به صورت کوتاه تر به جای کلمه اصلی نوشته می شوند. تلفظ این دسته از کلمات کوتاه شده همانند کلمه اصلی می باشد و در اکثر موارد بعد از حروف اختصار نقطه قرار می گیرد. مانند Dr. که کوتاه شده Doctor است.

Initialism: در این دسته از اختصارات حرف اول دسته ای از کلمات به عنوان نماد اختصاری آن کلمه نوشته می شوند. این حروف عموما با حروف بزرگ الفبا نوشته می شوند و تلفظ آنها به صورت حرف به حرف بیان می شود. مانند پلیس فدرال امریکا (FBI) که کوتاه شده Federal Bureau of Investigation بوده و تلفظ آن (اف – بی – آی) است.

Acronym: در این دسته از اختصارات نیز مانند دسته قبل حرف اول دسته ای از کلمات به عنوان نماد اختصاری آن کلمه نوشته می شود.این حروف عموما با حروف بزرگ الفبا نوشته می شوند و تلفظ آنها یک کلمه جدید را شکل می دهد. مانند نام سازمان فضانوردی امریکا (NASA) که کوتاه شده National Aeronautics and Space Administration بوده و تلفظ آن (ناسا) است.

در این بخش لیستی از اختصارات را به تفکیک نوع کوتاه شدن به همراه کلمه کامل و معنی آن مشاهده خواهید کرد.



Abbreviations and Acronyms


Abbreviations Full Form Meaning Use
A.D Anno Domini In the year of our lord Used to show years after the birth of Jesus Christ -1600 A.D
a.m Ante Meridian Before midday Used for the hours after midnight and before noon - 10a.m, 2a.m
c. / ca. Circa Approximately Used for years/months when not sure of exact date - ca. 1500
C.V Curriculum Vitae Course of Life A document summarizing a person’s education and experience.
e.g. Exempli gratia For example To give an example or instance of something - different cities, e.g. New York, Delhi, Beijing etc.
Et al. Et Alii And others Used to show that there are more names that are unmentioned on a list - Tom, Jane, Jack et al.
Etc. Et cetera And other things Used to signify similar things that are unmentioned on a list - milk, cheese, yoghurt etc.
i.e. Id est In other words / That is Used in sentences to rephrase or show a connection between clauses - Jack, i.e. the most popular senior, likes Beth.
p.a Per Annum Through the year Used to show something in the manner of ‘yearly’ - He earns 2 million dollars p.a.
p.m Post meridian After midday
P.S Post Scriptum Something written after the main text was finished. Used mainly in letters to add something extra after the signoff - Yours Shirley, P.S - I’ll be in Canada for 2 weeks.
R.I.P Requiescat in pace May he/she rest in peace Used as a prayer for someone who has died - May Janet R.I.P.
Stat Statim Immediately Used most often in the medical fields - This man needs a bypass stat.



Abbreviations Meaning Use
Dr. Doctor Dr. Smith was also invited.
Gen. General (army) Gen. Luke ordered them to fire at the enemy.
Hon. Honorable Hon. James Smith gave away the prizes.
Mr. Mister Mr. Hall is in office at the moment.
Mrs. Mistress Mrs. Hall is waiting for her car.
Ms. Miss Ms. Jane Watson is here to see you.
Prof. Professor Prof. Jain is a popular faculty in college.
Rev. Reverend (clergyman) Rev. Jones blessed the house today.
Sr. / Jr. Senior / Junior Bates Sr. and Harry Bates Jr. were inspecting the grounds.
St. Saint St. Patrick is one of the most popular Irish saints.



Abbreviations Meaning Use
Assn. Association They named their club; Assn. of Low and Highs.
Ave. Avenue They said they would be waiting at Lexington Ave.
Dept. Department The Arts Dept. is holding a bake sale.
Est. Established Annabel’s est. 1963 in London, England.
Fig. Figure Look to fig. 8 to see how the process takes place.
Hrs. Hours We will reach the next camp at 1500hrs.
Inc. Incorporated Apple Inc. was founded in the 1970s by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
Mt. Mount Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain on earth.
No. Number The address is House no. 64, Mulberry Lane.
Oz. Ounces The recipe needs 34 oz. of honey.
Sq. Square The rent is 100 dollar per sq. inch.
St. Street The shop is located at Xyza St. near the intersection.
Vs Versus The final match is going to be Australia vs. India.



Abbreviations Meaning
Abbr. Abbreviation / Abbreviated
Adj. Adjective
Adv. Adverb
Obj. Objective
Pl. Plural
Poss. Possessive
Prep. Preposition
Pron. Pronoun
Pseud. Pseudonym
Sing. Singular
Syn. Synonym
Trans. Translation
V. / Vb. Verb



Acronym Full Form What It Is
ATM Automated Teller Machine A computerised cash dispenser
BPO Business Process Outsourcing The outsourcing of specific functions of a business to a third party.
CAT Common Admission Test An ability based admission test conducted by the Indian Institute of Management.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid The molecule in any living being that contains all the genetic data of the living being.
DVD Digital Versatile Disk A compact optical storage disk, used for storing videos and other information.
FAQ Frequently Asked Questions A common section in most sites containing common queries from the visitors.
HR Human Resources The workforce of any organisation can also refer to the department that is in charge of human resources.
LCD Liquid Crystal Display A type of video display panel
LED Light Emitting Diode A glowing light source used in indicators.
PC Personal Computer A computer whose size, price and capabilities are useful for individual use.
RAM Random Access Memory A way/disk to store data on a computer
SONAR Sound Navigation And Ranging A technique that uses echoes to navigate or communicate usually used in submarines.
USP Unique Selling Proposition A term used to show how one product or service is different and unique from another.
VIP Very Important Person A person who gets special privileges due to their status or importance.
WWW World Wide Web Interlinked web documents accessed by the internet



Acronym Full Form What It Is
AIDS Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome A disease of the immune system caused by the HIV.
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations A political and economic organisation based on geographical location
CERN Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire An international organisation that operates the largest particle physics laboratory
FIFA Federation Internationale de Football Association Organisation in charge of international association football.
InterPol International Criminal Police Organization. An international organisation helping police cooperation across countries.
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration An American government agency handling space research.
NASCAR National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing. A family owned business sanctioning auto-racing events.
SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome A respiratory disease in humans which is fatal.
UN United Nations An international organisation for inter-country cooperation.
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Education Fund A UN program that provides humanitarian help to children.
YMCA Young Men’s Christian Association A worldwide association that helps to put Christian principles into action.
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus The virus that causes AIDS.



Acronym Full Form
B.A Bachelor of Arts
B.Sc Bachelor of Science
M.A Master of Arts
M.B.A Master of Business Administration
MBBS Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae - Bachelor of
MD Medicinae Doctor - Doctor of Medicine
PhD Philosophiae Doctor - Doctorate of Philosophy