Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement in the United States is not new but dates back to the first years of slavery and the events of the Civil War. But major achievements were gained during the second half of the 20th century. Before this period, African-Americans had suffered from inhuman segregation, violence and exploitation. The Civil Rights Movement used nonviolent protests to outlaw racial discrimination against African Americans and restore voting rights to them.
Major campaigns of civil resistance were the main feature of the movement. Crisis situations between activists and government authorities were produced by acts of nonviolent protests and civil disobedience during the period between 1955 and 1968. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans.
Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) in Alabama; "sit-ins" such as the influential Greensboro sit-ins (1960) in North Carolina; marches, such as the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965) in Alabama; and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the Civil Rights Movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964, that banned discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that restored and protected voting rights; the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, that dramatically opened entry to the U.S. to immigrants other than traditional European groups; and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, that banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, and across the country young people were inspired to action.
- 1. African-Americans were deprived of their basic rights.
- 2. Forms of protest included only boycotts and sit-ins
- 3. Protests yielded some rights for African-Americans
- 1. True
- 2. False - (The protests were nonviolent)
- 3. False - (They included also marches)
- 4. True - (He became less radical. He disavowed racism and expressed willingness to work with civil rights leaders)