Exams


TOEFL Listening - Practice test




Listening Practice test 1







Audio

Listen to the audio by pressing the button.




Narrator

Listen to a conversation between a student and a professor.

Student

Uh, excuse me, Professor Thompson. I know your office hours are tomorrow, but I was wondering if you had a few minutes free now to discuss something.

Professor

Sure, John. What did you want to talk about?

Student

Well, I have some quick questions about how to write up the research project I did this semester about climate variations.

Professor

Oh, yes. You were looking at variations in climate in the Grant City area, right? How far along have you gotten?

Student

I've got all my data, so I'm starting to summarize it now, preparing graphs and stuff. But I'm just…I'm just looking at it and I'm afraid that it's not enough, but I'm not sure what else to put in the report.

Professor

I hear the same thing from every Student. You know, you have to remember now that you're the expert on what you've done. So, think about what you'd need to include if you were going to explain your research project to someone with general or casual knowledge about the subject, like ... like your parents. That's usually my rule of thumb: would my parents understand this?

Student

OK. I get it.

Professor

I hope you can recognize by my saying that how much you do know about the subject.

Student

Right. I understand. I was wondering if I should also include the notes from the research journal you suggested I keep?

Professor

Yes, definitely. You should use them to indicate what your evolution in thought was through time. So, just set up, you know, what was the purpose of what you were doing-to try to understand the climate variability of this area-and what you did, and what your approach was.

Student

OK. So, for example, I studied meteorological records; I looked at climate charts; I used different methods for analyzing the data, like certain statistical tests; and then I discuss the results. Is that what you mean?

Professor

Yes, that's right. You should include all of that. The statistical tests are especially important. And also be sure you include a good reference section where all your published and unpublished data came from, because you have a lot of unpublished climate data.

Student

Hmm ... something just came into my mind and went out the other side.

Professor

That happens to me a lot, so I've come up with a pretty good memory management tool. I carry a little pad with me all the time and jot down questions or ideas that I don't want to forget. For example, I went to the doctor with my daughter and her baby son last week and we knew we wouldn't remember everything we wanted to ask the doctor, so we actually made a list of five things we wanted answers to.

Student

A notepad is a good idea. Since I’m so busy now at the end of the semester, I'm getting pretty forgetful these days. OK, I just remembered what I was trying to say before.

Professor

Good. I was hoping you’d come up with it.

Student

Yes. It ends up that I have data on more than just the immediate Grant City area, so I also included some regional data in the report. With everything else it should be a pretty good indicator of the climate in this part of the state.

Professor

Sounds good. I'd be happy to look over a draft version before you hand in the final copy, if you wish.

Student

Great. I'll plan to get you a draft of the paper by next Friday. Thanks very much. Well, see ya.

Professor

OK.



Questions:
Directions: Mark your answer by filling in the oval next to your choice.

  1. Why does the man go to see his professor?


  2. Listen again to part of the conversation by playing Audio 2.

    Then answer the question.


  3. What information will the man include in his report?
    For each phrase below, place a checkmark in the "Include" column or the "Not include" column.

    Include in the report Not Include in the report
    Climate charts
    Interviews with meteorologists
    Journal notes
    Statistical tests






  4. Why does the professor tell the man about the appointment at the doctor's office?


  5. What does the professor offer to do for the man?


Listening Practice test 2







Audio

Listen to the audio by pressing the button.




Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in a philosophy class.

Professor

OK. Another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle-Aristotle's ethical theory. What Aristotle's ethical theory is all about is this: he's trying to show you how to be happy-what true happiness is.
Now, why is he interested in human happiness? It's not just because it's something that all people want or aim for. It's more than that. But to get there we need to first make a very important distinction. Let me introduce a couple of technical terms: extrinsic value and intrinsic value.
To understand Aristotle's interest in happiness, you need to understand this distinction. Some things we aim for and value, not for themselves but for what they bring about in addition to themselves. If I value something as a means to something else, then it has what we will call "extrinsic value." Other things we desire and hold to be valuable for themselves alone. If we value something not as a means to something else, but for its own sake, let us say that it has "intrinsic value."
Exercise. There may be some people who value exercise for itself, but I don't. I value exercise because if I exercise, I tend to stay healthier than I would if I didn't. So I desire to engage in exercise and I value exercise extrinsically ... not for its own sake, but as a means to something beyond it. It brings me good health.
Health. Why do I value good health? Well, here it gets a little more complicated for me. Um, health is important for me because I can't ... do other things I want to do-play music, teach philosophy-if I'm ill. So health is important to me-has value to me-as a means to a productive life. But health is also important to me because I just kind of like to be healthy-it feels good. It's pleasant to be healthy, unpleasant not to be. So to some degree I value health both for itself and as a means to something else: productivity. It's got extrinsic and intrinsic value for me. Then there's some things that are just valued for themselves. I'm a musician, not a professional musician; I just playa musical instrument for fun. Why do I value playing music? Well, like most amateur musicians, I only play because, well, I just enjoy it. It's something that's an end in itself.
Now, something else I value is teaching. Why? Well, it brings in a modest income, but I could make more money doing other things. I'd do it even if they didn't pay me. I just enjoy teaching. In that sense it's an end to itself.
But teaching's not something that has intrinsic value for all people-and that's true generally. Most things that are enjoyed in and of themselves vary from person to person. Some people value teaching intrinsically, but others don't.
So how does all this relate to human happiness? Well, Aristotle asks: is there something that all human beings value ... and value only intrinsically, for its own sake and only for its own sake? If you could find such a thing, that would be the universal final good, or truly the ultimate purpose or goal for all human beings. Aristotle thought the answer was yes. What is it? Happiness. Everyone will agree, he argues, that happiness is the ultimate end to be valued for itself and really only for itself. For what other purpose is there in being happy? What does it yield? The attainment of happiness becomes the ultimate or highest good for Aristotle.
The next question that Aristotle raises is: what is happiness? We all want it; we all desire it; we all seek it. It's the goal we have in life. But what is it? How do we find it? Here he notes, with some frustration, people disagree.
But he does give us a couple of criteria, or features, to keep in mind as we look for what true human happiness is. True human happiness should be, as he puts it, complete. Complete in that it's all we require. Well, true human happiness ... if you had that, what else do you need? Nothing.
And, second, true happiness should be something that I can obtain on my own. I shouldn't have to rely on other people for it. Many people value fame and seek fame. Fame for them becomes the goal. But, according to Aristotle, this won't work either, because fame depends altogether too much on other people. I can't get it on my own, without help from other people.
In the end, Aristotle says that true happiness is the exercise of reason-a life of intellectual contemplation... of thinking. So let's see how he comes to that.



Questions:
Directions: Mark your answer by filling in the oval next to your choice.

  1. What is the main purpose of the lecture?


  2. What information will the man include in his report?
    For each phrase below, place a checkmark in the "Include" column or the "Not include" column.

    Include in the report Not Include in the report
    Climate charts
    Interviews with meteorologists
    Journal notes
    Statistical tests






  3. Why is happiness central to Aristotle's theory?



  4. According to the professor, why does Aristotle think that fame cannot provide true happiness?


  5. Listen again to part of the lecture by playing Audio 4. Then answer the question.

    Then answer the question.


Listening Practice test 3







Audio

Listen to the audio by pressing the button.




Narrator

Listen to part of a psychology lecture. The professor is discussing behaviorism.

Professor

Now, many people consider John Watson to be the founder of behaviorism. And like other behaviorists, he believed that psychologists should study only the behaviors they can observe and measure. They're not interested in mental processes. While a person could describe his thoughts, no one else can see or hear them to verify the accuracy of his report. But one thing you can observe is muscular habits. What Watson did was to observe muscular habits because he viewed them as a manifestation of thinking. One kind of habit that he studied are laryngeal habits.
Watson thought laryngeal habits ... you know, from larynx, in other words, related to the voice box ... he thought those habits were an expression of thinking. He argued that for very young children, thinking is really talking out loud to oneself because they talk out loud even if they're not trying to communicate with someone in particular. As the individual matures, that overt talking to oneself becomes covert talking to oneself, but thinking still shows up as a laryngeal habit. One of the bits of evidence that supports this is that when people are trying to solve a problem, they, um, typically have increased muscular activity in the throat region. That is, if you put electrodes on the throat and measure muscle potential-muscle activity-you discover that when people are thinking, like if they're diligently trying to solve a problem, that there is muscular activity in the throat region.
So Watson made the argument that problem solving or thinking can be defined as a set of behaviors- a set of responses- and in this case the response he observed was the throat activity.
That's what he means when he calls it a laryngeal habit. Now, as I am thinking about what I am going to be saying, my muscles in my throat are responding. So, thinking can be measured as muscle activity. Now, the motor theory, yes?

Student

Professor Blake, um, did he happen to look at people who sign? I mean deaf people?

Professor

Uh, he did indeed, um, and to jump ahead, what one finds in deaf individuals who use sign language when they're given problems of various kinds, they have muscular changes in their hands when they are trying to solve a problem ... muscle changes in the hand, just like the muscular changes going on in the throat region for speaking individuals. So, for Watson, thinking is identical with the activity of muscles. A related concept of thinking was developed by William James. It's called ideomotor action.
Ideomotor action is an activity that occurs without our noticing it, without our being aware of it. I'll give you one simple example. If you think of locations, there tends to be eye movement that occurs with your thinking about that location. In particular, from where we're sitting, imagine that you're asked to think of our university library. Well, if you close your eyes and think of the library, and if you're sitting directly facing me, then according to this notion, your eyeballs will move slightly to the left, to your left, 'cause the library's in that general direction.
James and others said that this is an idea leading to a motor action, and that's why it's called "ideomotor action"-an idea leads to motor activity. If you wish to impress your friends and relatives, you can change this simple process into a magic trick. Ask people to do something such as I've just described: think of something on their left; think of something on their right. You get them to think about two things on either side with their eyes closed, and you watch their eyes very carefully. And if you do that, you'll discover that you can see rather clearly the eye movement-that is, you can see the movement of the eyeballs. Now, then you say, think of either one and I'll tell which you're thinking of.
OK. Well, Watson makes the assumption that muscular activity is equivalent to thinking. But given everything we've been talking about here, one has to ask: are there alternatives to this motor theory-this claim that muscular activities are equivalent to thinking? Is there anything else that might account for this change in muscular activity, other than saying that it is thinking? And the answer is clearly yes. Is there any way to answer the question definitively? I think the answer is no.



Questions:
Directions: Mark your answer by filling in the oval next to your choice.

  1. What is the professor mainly discussing?


  2. Listen again to part of the lecture by playing Audio 6. Then answer the question.

    Then answer the question.


  3. What does the professor say about people who use sign language?


  4. What point does the professor make when he refers to the university library?


  5. The professor describes a magic trick to the class. What does the magic trick demonstrate?


  6. What is the professor's opinion of the motor theory of thinking?


Listening Practice test 4







Audio

Listen to the audio by pressing the button.




Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in an astronomy class. You will not need to remember the numbers the professor mentions.

Professor

OK. Let's get going. Today I'm going to talk about how the asteroid belt was discovered. And ...I'm going to start by writing some numbers on the board. Here they are: We'll start with zero, then 3,... 6,... 12. Uh, tell me what I'm doing.

Female Student

Multiplying by 2?

Professor

Right. I'm doubling the numbers, so 2 times 12 is 24, and the next one I'm going to write after 24 would be...

Female Student

48.

Professor

48. Then 96. We'll stop there for now. Uh, now I'll write another row of numbers under that. Tell me what I'm doing. 4, 7, 10,... How am I getting this second row?

Male student

Adding 4 to the numbers in the first row.

Professor

I'm adding 4 to each number in the first row to give you a second row. So the last two will be 52, 100, and now tell me what I'm doing.

Female Student

Putting in a decimal?

Professor

Yes, I divided all those numbers by 10 by putting in a decimal point. Now I'm going to write the names of the planets under the numbers. Mercury ... Venus ... Earth ... Mars. So, what do the numbers mean? Do you remember from the reading?

Male Student

Is it the distance of the planets from the Sun?

Professor

Right. In astronomical units, not perfect, but tantalizingly close. The value for Mars is off by... 6 or 7 percent or so. It's ... but it's within 10 percent of the average distance to Mars from the Sun. But I kind of have to skip the one after Mars for now. Then Jupiter's right there at 5-point something, and then Saturn is about 10 astronomical units from the Sun. Um, well, this pattern is known as Bode's Law.
Um, it isn't really a scientific law, not in the sense of predicting gravitation mathematically or something, but it's attempting a pattern in the spacing of the planets, and it was noticed by Bode hundreds of years ago. Well, you can imagine that there was some interest in why the 2.8 spot in the pattern was skipped, and um ... but there wasn't anything obvious there, in the early telescopes.
Then what happened in the late 1700s? The discovery of...?

Female Student

Another planet?

Professor

The next planet out, Uranus-after Saturn. And look, Uranus fits in the next spot in the pattern pretty nicely, urn, not perfectly, but close.
And so then people got really excited about the validity of this thing and finding the missing object between Mars and Jupiter. And telescopes, remember, were getting better. So people went to work on finding objects that would be at that missing distance from the Sun, and then in 1801, the object Ceres was discovered. And Ceres was in the right place-the missing spot. Uh, but it was way too faint to be a planet. It looked like a little star. Uh, and because of its star like appearance, urn, it was called an "asteroid."
OK? "Aster" is Greek for "star," as in "astronomy." Um, and so, Ceres was the first and is the largest of what became many objects discovered at that same distance. Not just one thing, but all the objects found at that distance form the asteroid belt. So the asteroid belt is the most famous success of this Bode's Law. That's how the asteroid belt was discovered.



Questions:
Directions: Mark your answer by filling in the oval next to your choice.

  1. What is Bode's Law?


  2. Why does the professor explain Bode's Law to the class?


  3. How does the professor introduce Bode's Law?


  4. Listen again to part of the lecture by playing Audio 8. Then answer the question.

    Then answer the question.


  5. According to the professor, what two factors contributed to the discovery of the asteroid Ceres? Choose 2 answers.


  6. What does the professor imply about the asteroid belt?


Listening Practice test 5







Audio

Listen to the audio by pressing the button.




Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture from a Botany class.

Professor

Hi, everyone. Good to see you all today. Actually, I expected the population to be a lot lower today. It typically runs between 50 and 60 percent on the day the research paper is due. Um, I was hoping to have your exams back today, but, uh, the situation was that I went away for the weekend, and I was supposed to get in yesterday at five, and I expected to fully complete all the exams by midnight or so, which is the time that I usually go to bed, but my flight was delayed, and I ended up not getting in until one o'clock in the morning. Anyway, I'll do my best to have them finished by the next time we meet.
Ok, in the last class, we started talking about useful plant fibers. In particular we talked about cotton fibers, which we said were very useful, not only in the textile industry but also in the chemical industry, and in the production of many products such as plastics, paper, explosives, and so on. Today we’ll continue talking about useful fibers, and we’ll begin with a fiber that’s commonly known as “Msanila hemp”.
Now for some strange reason some people believe that Manila hemp is a hemp plant. But Manila hemp is not really hem. It’s actually a member of banana family. It even bears little banana-shaped fruits. The "Manila" part of the name makes sense, because Manila hemp is produced chiefly in the Philippine Islands and, of course, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila.
Now, as fibers go, Manila hemp fibers are very long. They can easily be several feet in length and they're also very strong, very flexible. They have one more characteristic that's very important, and that is that they are exceptionally resistant to salt water. And this combination of characteristics- long, strong, flexible, resistant to salt water-makes Manila hemp a great material for ropes, especially for ropes that are gonna be used on ocean-going ships. In fact, by the early 1940's, even though steel cables were available, most ships in the United States Navy were not moored with steel cables; they were moored with Manila hemp ropes.
Now, why was that? Well, the main reason was that steel cables degrade very, very quickly in contact with salt water. If you've ever been to San Francisco, you know that the Golden Gate Bridge is red. And it's red because of the zinc paint that goes on those stainless steel cables. That, if they start at one end of the bridge and they work to the other end, by the time they finish, it's already time to go back and start painting the beginning of the bridge again, because the bridge was built with steel cables, and steel cables can't take the salt air unless they're treated repeatedly with a zinc-based paint.
On the other hand, plant products like Manila hemp, you can drag through the ocean for weeks on end. If you wanna tie your anchor to it and drop it right into the ocean, that's no problem, because plant fibers can stand up for months, even years, in direct contact with salt water. OK. So how do you take plant fibers that individually you could break with your hands and turn them into a rope that's strong enough to moor a ship that weighs thousands of tons? Well, what you do is you extract these long fibers from the Manila hemp plant, and then you take several of these fibers, and you group them into a bundle, because by grouping the fibers you greatly increase their breaking strength-that bundle of fibers is much stronger than any of the individual fibers that compose it. And then you take that bundle of fibers and you twist it a little bit, because by twisting it, you increase its breaking strength even more.
And then you take several of these little bundles, and you group and twist them into bigger bundles, which you then group and twist into even bigger bundles, and so on, until eventually, you end up with a very, very strong rope.



Questions:
Directions: Mark your answer by filling in the oval next to your choice.

  1. What aspect of Manila hemp fibers does the professor mainly discuss in the lecture?


  2. Listen again to part of the conversation by playing Audio 10.

    Then answer the question.


  3. What does the professor imply about the name "Manila hemp"?


  4. Why does the professor mention the Golden Gate Bridge?


  5. According to the professor, what was the main reason that many ships used Manila hemp ropes instead of steel cables?


  6. According to the lecture, what are two ways to increase the strength of rope made from Manila hemp fibers? Choose 2 answers.


Answers and Explanations:
  • Question 1:
  • C) To talk about a report he is writing
  • Explanation: You should recognize that this is a Gist-Purpose question. The man says, "I have some quick questions about how to write up the research project I did this semester." He is going to write a report about his project and is unsure of what to include. Choice 3 is the correct answer.

  • Question 2 :
  • B) To offer encouragement
  • Explanation: You should recognize that this is an Understanding the Function of What Is Said question. The question asks you to re-listen to this part of the conversation:

    Professor
    I hear the same thing from every Student. You know, you have to remember now that you're the expert on what you've done. So, think about what you'd need to include if you were going to explain your research project to someone with general or casual knowledge about the subject, like ... like your parents. That's usually my rule of thumb: would my parents understand this? Student
    OK. I get it.

    Professor
    I hope you can recognize by my saying that how much you do know about the subject. Then you are asked specifically about this sentence: Why does the professor say this:

    Professor
    I hope you can recognize by my saying that how much you do know about the subject. The student is unsure of how to present the information in his report. The professor is trying to give the student confidence in his own judgment. Therefore, the correct answer is choice B, ''To offer encouragement."

  • Question 3 :
  • Explanation: This question is easy to recognize as a Connecting Content question. The student and the professor discuss several sources of information that the student used to investigate climate variation. They do not discuss interviewing meteorologists, even though they mention other kinds of conversations, like the professor's discussion with her child's doctor. The chart correctly filled out looks like this:

    Include in the report Not Include in the report
    Climate charts X
    Interviews with meteorologists X
    Journal notes X
    Statistical tests X








  • Question 4 :
  • A) To demonstrate a way of remembering things
  • Explanation: This is an Understanding the Function of What Is Said question. The correct answer is choice 1. The professor's purpose in mentioning the doctor's office is to show the man how writing down questions as they occur can be useful. The man has forgotten a question he wanted to ask the professor. The professor, when she spoke to the doctor, wrote down her questions beforehand, so she would not forget. She mentions the doctor's office in order to demonstrate a strategy for remembering.

  • Question 5 :
  • D) Review the first version of his report
  • Explanation: This is a Detail question. The discussion ends with the professor offering to "look over a draft version" of the man's paper.



Answers and Explanations:
  • Question 1:
  • D) To discuss Aristotle's views about human happiness
  • Explanation: You should recognize that this is a Gist-Purpose question. The professor discusses the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic value, but what is her purpose in doing this? "To understand Aristotle's interest in happiness, you need to understand this distinction (extrinsic and intrinsic)." The professor's purpose is choice 4: "To discuss Aristotle's views about human happiness."

  • Question 2 :
  • B) To offer encouragement
  • Explanation: This question is easy to recognize as a Connecting Content question. The professor gives examples of some activities and discusses whether they have intrinsic value, extrinsic value, or both. Her explanations of why she values exercise, health, and playing a musical instrument are fairly clear and explicit. For teaching, it is clear that for her it has intrinsic value, but she admits this may be different for others.

    The question is about "what type of value it has for her." The chart correctly filled out looks like this:

    Only Extrinsic value Only Intrinsic value Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic value
    Teaching X
    Exercise X
    Health X
    Playing a musical instrument X








  • Question 3 :
  • B) Because it is valued for its own sake by all people
  • Explanation: This is a Detail question. The question is answered by the professor when she says, "Everyone will agree, he [Aristotle] argues, that happiness is the ultimate end ... to be valued for itself and really only for itself." The best answer for this question is choice 2. Note that this detail question is directly related to the main idea or gist of the passage.

  • Question 4 :
  • A) Fame cannot be obtained without help from other people.
  • Explanation: This is another Detail question. It is not as closely related to the gist as the previous question. At the end of the passage the professor compares happiness and fame. She says, “according to Aristotle, this won't work either, because fame depends altogether too much on other people. I can't get it on my own.” The correct answer is choice 1.

  • Question 5 :
  • C) The reason she is a teacher has little to do with her salary.
  • Explanation: This is an Understanding the Function of What Is Said question. The professor discusses teaching to stress its intrinsic value for her. Therefore, the best answer is choice 3. The reason she is a teacher has little to do with money. Salary would be an extrinsic value, but she does not value teaching because of the salary.




Answers and Explanations:
  • Question 1:
  • C) A theory about the relationship between muscle activity and thinking
  • Explanation: this is a Gist-Content question. The professor discusses two types of muscular activities: laryngeal habits and ideomotor activity, and how they are related to thinking. The best answer is choice 3, a theory about the relationship between muscle activity and thinking. The other choices are mentioned by the professor but are not the main topic of the discussion.

  • Question 2 :
  • B) To explain the meaning of a term
  • Explanation: This is an Understanding the Function of What is said question. The professor introduces an unusual term, “laryngeal habits”. He then says “…you know, from larynx, in other words, related to the voice box…” His brief explanation is meant to help the students understand the term “laryngeal habits”. The choice 2 is the best answer to this question.

  • Question 3 :
  • C) The muscles in their hands move when they solve problems.
  • Explanation: This is detail question. The professor responds to a student who asks a question about people who use sign language. He says that they "have muscular changes in their hands ... just like the muscular changes going on in the throat region for speaking individuals." The best answer is choice 3. This Detail question is related to the main idea of the passage as both are concerned with the relationship between muscular changes and thinking.

  • Question 4 :
  • C) Students' eyes will turn toward it if they think about it.
  • Explanation: This is an Understanding Organization question. The professor talks about muscular activity in the eyes that will occur if the students think about the location of the library. The question asks for the conclusion of that example. The best answer is choice 3. Students' eyes will turn toward it if they think about it.

  • Question 5 :
  • A) An action people make that they are not aware of
  • Explanation: This is a Connecting Content question. Answering the question correctly requires you to understand that the magic trick the professor is describing is an "ideomotor activity" and that these types of activities occur "without our noticing it, without our being aware of it." The best answer to this question is choice 1.

  • Question 6 :
  • D) It cannot be completely proved or disproved.
  • Explanation: Questions like this one that ask for the professor's opinion are Understanding the Speaker's Attitude questions. The professor's opinion can be found at the end of the listening passage. He says that there may be alternative theories, but there is no way to answer the question definitively. The best answer to this question is choice 4. It cannot be completely proved or disproved.




Answers and Explanations:
  • Question 1:
  • D) A pattern in the spacing of the planets procedures
  • Explanation: This is a Detail question. Although the entire passage is concerned with answering "What is Bode's Law?" the professor specifically answers the question when he says, "... it's attempting a pattern in the spacing of the planets ...." The best answer to this question is choice 4.

  • Question 2 :
  • B) To explain how the asteroid belt was discovered
  • Explanation: This is a Gist-Purpose question. Gist questions are not usually answered very explicitly in the passage, but in this case the professor addresses the purpose of the discussion twice. At one point he says, ''I'm going to talk about how the asteroid belt was discovered," and later he states, "That's how the asteroid belt was discovered." The best answer to this question is choice 2.

  • Question 3 :
  • A) By demonstrating how it is derived mathematically
  • Explanation: This is an Understanding Organization question. The professor first demonstrates the pattern of numbers before explaining Bode's Law and what the pattern means. The best answer to this question is choice 1.

  • Question 4 :
  • C) To describe the limitations of gravitational theory
  • Explanation: This is an Understanding the Function of What Is Said replay question. The pattern the professor describes is called Bode's Law. The professor is pointing out how Bode's Law differs from other scientific laws. The best answer to this question is choice 4.

  • Question 5 :
  • A) Improved telescopes - D) The position of Uranus in a pattern
  • Explanation: This is a Detail question. Note that for this question there are two correct answers. The professor explains that “Uranus fits in the next spot in the pattern pretty nicely… and telescopes were getting better … and then in 1801, the object Ceres was discovered. Choices 1 and 4 are the correct answers. Advances in mathematics and discovery of a new star are not mentioned by the professor.

  • Question 6 :
  • C) It is located where people expected to find a planet.
  • Explanation: This is a Making Inference question. Starting at the point in the passage where the professor says, “…there was some interest in why 2.8 spot in the pattern was skipped… there wasn’t anything obvious there,” it’s clear that what the astronomers are looking for is a planet. He later says “Ceres was in the right place but too faint to be a planet”. The best answer to the question is choice 3.




Answers and Explanations:
  • Question 1:
  • D) A use of Manila hemp fibers
  • Explanation: Questions like this one that ask about what the professor mainly discusses are Gist-Content questions. This question asks what aspect of Manila hemp fibers are mainly discussed, so it has a narrower focus than other Gist-Content questions. The professor mainly discusses characteristics of Manila hemp and how these characteristics make Manila hemp useful to the shipping industry. The best answer to this question is choice 4.

  • Question 2 :
  • B) To apologize for not completing some work
  • Explanation: This is an Understanding the Function of What Is Said replay question. The professor mentions that she went away for the weekend and because a flight was delayed, she was late returning. She tells this story in order to apologize for not completing marking exams. The best answer to this question is choice 2.

  • Question 3 :
  • B) Part of the name is inappropriate.
  • Explanation: This is a Making Inferences question. The professor explains that Manila hemp is produced chiefly in the area near Manila, so the word Manila in the name is appropriate. However, Manila hemp is not a type of hemp plant, so the word hemp in the name is not appropriate. The best answer to this question is choice 2.

  • Question 4 :
  • A) To demonstrate a disadvantage of steel cables
  • Explanation: This is an Understanding Organization question. The professor mentions the Golden Gate Bridge in order to make a comparison between the steel cables of the bridge and Manila hemp ropes. The fact that the steel cables must be constantly repainted is a disadvantage. The best answer to the question is choice 1.

  • Question 5 :
  • C) Manila hemp is more resistant to salt water.
  • Explanation: This is a Detail question. It is related to the professor's main point about Manila hemp. The professor says that Manila hemp is "exceptionally resistant to salt water." Much of the listening passage deals with the professor's reinforcing and exemplifying this point. The best answer to this question is choice 3.

  • Question 6 :
  • B) Combine the fibers into bundles - D) Twist bundles of fibers
  • Explanation: Near the end of the listening passage, the professor describes how Manila hemp ropes are made. The answer to this Detail question can be found there. The professor talks about grouping fibers into bundles and then twisting the bundles to make them stronger. Note that this question requires two answers. The best answers to this question are choices 2 and 4.