Exams


افزایش نمره مهارت های تافل آی بی تی



Choose your performance level below:


  1. Practice listening to something in English every day and gradually increase the amount of time that you listen.
    • Listen to different kinds of materials.
      • Listen actively. Try to answer the "wh" questions.
        • who
        • what
        • when
        • where
        • why
        • how
      • Listen passively to get the general idea of what's being said.
    • Keep a listening log (a list of everything you listen to each day/week).
      • Write a one-sentence summary to remember the main idea of what you heard.
      • Write down new expressions, idioms, and vocabulary that you hear.
    • Use dictations and other exercises to help your listening ability.
      • Ask an English speaker to dictate an article to you. Good sources of material are newspapers, magazines, and textbooks.
        • First, write down exactly what you hear
        • Then only take notes on the important points that you hear
      • Do information gap exercises, using unfamiliar content and complex structures.


  2. Use the resources in your community to practice listening to English.
    • Visit places in your community where you can practice listening to English.
      • If possible, enroll in an English class.
      • Go to a museum and take an audio tour in English.
      • Follow a guided tour in English in your city.
      • Call or visit a hotel where tourists stay and get information in English about room rates, hotel availability, or hotel facilities.
      • Call and listen to information recorded in English, such as a movie schedule, a weather report, or information about an airplane flight.
    • Watch or listen to programs recorded in English.
      • Watch television programs.
        • CNN, the Discovery Channel or National Geographic
        • Watch movies, soap operas or situation comedies on television
        • Do this with a friend and talk about the program together
      • Rent videos (turn off the captions!) or go to a movie in English.
      • Listen to a book on tape in English.
      • Listen to music in English and then check your accuracy by finding the lyrics on the Internet.
      • Listen to English language recordings that come with a transcript. Listen to each recording at least three times.
        • The first time, take notes about the main ideas you hear.
        • The second time, read the transcript and listen for the ideas you wrote down.
        • The third time, write down any words and phrases that you didn’t understand and look them up.
    • Go to Internet sites to practice listening.
    • Practice speaking English with others.
      • Exchange language lessons with an English speaker who wants to learn your language.


  3. Begin to prepare for academic situations.
    • Visit academic classes in English.
    • Record lectures or presentations and replay them several times.
      • Listen to short sections several times until you understand the main points and the flow of ideas.
      • Stop the recording in the middle and predict what will come next.
    • Become familiar with the organization or structure of academic lectures.
      • Pay attention to the difference between main ideas and details presented.
        • Listen for the general (main) ideas
        • Pay attention to details
          • facts
          • examples
          • opinions
      • Pay attention to the structure.
        • lecture or presentation — introduction, body and conclusion
        • narrative story — beginning, middle and end
      • Learn to recognize different styles of organization.
        • theory and evidence
        • cause and effect
        • steps of a process
        • comparison of two things
    • Think carefully about the purpose of the lecture.
      • Try to answer the question, "What is the professor trying to accomplish in this lecture?"
      • Write down only the information that you hear. Be careful not to interpret information based on your personal understanding or knowledge of the topic.
    • Take notes while you listen to a talk or lecture. This will help you identify the main ideas of the talk.
      • Practice doing simple dictations to work on your ability to listen and write at the same time.
      • Work with a partner. Listen to a talk and take notes individually.
        • Compare your notes with your partner’s and check for differences (and similarities)
        • Use your notes to tell your partner what you heard
      • Use your notes to write an outline or summary.
      • Gradually increase the length of the talks (and your summaries).


  4. Listen for signals that will help you understand the organization of a talk, connections between ideas and the importance of ideas.
    • Listen for expressions and vocabulary that tell you the type of information being given.
      • Think carefully about the type of information that these phrases show.
        • opinion (I think, It appears that, It is thought that)
        • theory (In theory)
        • inference (therefore, then)
        • negatives (not, words that begin with "un," "non," "dis" "a")
        • fillers (non-essential information) (uh, er, um)
      • Identify digressions (discussion of a different topic from the main topic) or jokes that are not important to the main lecture. [It’s okay not to understand these!]
    • Listen for signal words or phrases that connect ideas in order to recognize the relationship between ideas.
      • Think carefully about the connection between ideas that these words show.
        • reasons (because, since)
        • results (as a result, so, therefore, thus, consequently)
        • examples (for example, such as)
        • comparisons (in contrast, than)
        • an opposing idea (on the other hand, however)
        • another idea (furthermore, moreover, besides)
        • a similar idea (similarly, likewise)
        • restatements of information (in other words, that is)
        • conclusions (in conclusion, in summary)
      • Pay attention to the connections between examples.
        • When you hear two details, identify the relationship between them
        • Write a sentence connecting the examples using the appropriate connecting word
    • Pay attention to intonation and other ways that speakers indicate that information is important.
      • Important key words are often
        • repeated
        • paraphrased (repeated information but using different words)
        • said louder and clearer
        • stressed
      • Pay attention to body language and intonation patterns used to express different emotions.
        • Emotions are often expressed through changes in intonation or stress
        • Facial expressions or word choices can indicate excitement, anger, happiness or frustration
      • Listen for pauses between important points.
      • During a lecture, pay attention to words that are written on the board.
        • Listen for numbers that you might hear in prices, times or addresses
        • Listen for verbs and other expressions that show if an event is happening in the past, present or future




  1. Practice listening to something in English every day and gradually increase the amount of time that you listen.
    • Listen to different kinds of materials.
      • Listen actively. Try to answer the "wh" questions.
        • who
        • what
        • when
        • where
        • why
        • how
      • Listen passively to get the general idea of what's being said.
    • Keep a listening log (a list of everything you listen to each day/week).
      • Write a one-sentence summary to remember the main idea of what you heard.
      • Write down new expressions, idioms, and vocabulary that you hear.
    • Use dictations and other exercises to help your listening ability.
      • Ask an English speaker to dictate an article to you. Good sources of material are newspapers, magazines, and textbooks.
        • First, write down exactly what you hear
        • Then only take notes on the important points that you hear
      • Do information gap exercises, using unfamiliar content and complex structures.


  1. Use the resources in your community to practice listening to English.
    • Visit places in your community where you can practice listening to English.
      • If possible, enroll in an English class.
      • Go to a museum and take an audio tour in English.
      • Follow a guided tour in English in your city.
      • Call or visit a hotel where tourists stay and get information in English about room rates, hotel availability, or hotel facilities.
      • Call and listen to information recorded in English, such as a movie schedule, a weather report, or information about an airplane flight.
    • Watch or listen to programs recorded in English.
      • Watch television programs.
        • CNN, the Discovery Channel or National Geographic
        • Watch movies, soap operas or situation comedies on television
        • Do this with a friend and talk about the program together
      • Rent videos (turn off the captions!) or go to a movie in English.
      • Listen to a book on tape in English.
      • Listen to music in English and then check your accuracy by finding the lyrics on the Internet.
      • Listen to English language recordings that come with a transcript. Listen to each recording at least three times.
        • The first time, take notes about the main ideas you hear
        • The second time, read the transcript and listen for the ideas you wrote down
        • The third time, write down any words and phrases that you didn't understand and look them up
    • Go to Internet sites to practice listening.
    • Practice speaking English with others.
      • Exchange language lessons with an English speaker who wants to learn your language.


  1. Begin to prepare for academic situations.
    • Visit academic classes in English.
    • Record lectures or presentations and replay them several times.
      • Listen to short sections several times until you understand the main points and the flow of ideas.
      • Stop the recording in the middle and predict what will come next.
    • Become familiar with the organization or structure of academic lectures.
      • Pay attention to the difference between main ideas and details presented.
        • Listen for the general (main) ideas
        • Pay attention to details
          • facts
          • examples
          • opinions
      • Pay attention to the structure.
        • lecture or presentation — introduction, body, and conclusion
        • narrative story — beginning, middle, and end
      • Learn to recognize different styles of organization.
        • theory and evidence
        • cause and effect
        • steps of a process
        • comparison of two things
    • Think carefully about the purpose of the lecture.
      • Try to answer the question, "What is the professor trying to accomplish in this lecture?"
      • Write down only the information that you hear. Be careful not to interpret information based on your personal understanding or knowledge of the topic.
    • Take notes while you listen to a talk or lecture. This will help you identify the main ideas of the talk.
      • Practice doing simple dictations to work on your ability to listen and write at the same time.
      • Work with a partner. Listen to a talk and take notes individually.
        • Compare your notes with your partner's and check for differences (and similarities)
        • Use your notes to tell your partner what you heard
      • Use your notes to write an outline or summary.
      • Gradually increase the length of the talks (and your summaries).


  1. Listen for signals that will help you understand the organization of a talk, connections between ideas, and the importance of ideas.
    • Listen for expressions and vocabulary that tell you the type of information being given.
      • Think carefully about the type of information that these phrases show.
        • opinion (I think, It appears that, It is thought that)
        • theory (In theory)
        • inference (therefore, then)
        • negatives (not, words that begin with "un," "non," "dis," "a")
        • fillers (non-essential information) (uh, er, um)
      • Identify digressions (discussion of a different topic from the main topic) or jokes that are not important to the main lecture. [It’s okay not to understand these!]
    • Listen for signal words or phrases that connect ideas in order to recognize the relationship between ideas.
      • Think carefully about the connection between ideas that these words show.
        • reasons (because, since)
        • results (as a result, so, therefore, thus, consequently)
        • examples (for example, such as)
        • comparisons (in contrast, than)
        • an opposing idea (on the other hand, however)
        • another idea (furthermore, moreover, besides)
        • a similar idea (similarly, likewise)
        • restatements of information (in other words, that is)
        • conclusions (in conclusion, in summary)
      • Pay attention to the connections between examples.
        • When you hear two details, identify the relationship between them
        • Write a sentence connecting the examples using the appropriate connecting word
    • Pay attention to intonation and other ways that speakers indicate that information is important
      • Important key words are often
        • repeated
        • paraphrased (repeated information but using different words)
        • said louder and clearer
        • stressed
      • Pay attention to body language and intonation patterns used to express different emotions.
        • Emotions are often expressed through changes in intonation or stress
        • Facial expressions or word choices can indicate excitement, anger, happiness, or frustration
      • Listen for pauses between important points.
      • During a lecture, pay attention to words that are written on the board.
        • Listen for numbers that you might hear in prices, times, or addresses
Listen for verbs and other expressions that show if an event is happening in the past, present, or future



  1. Use the resources in your community to practice listening to English.
    • Visit places in your community where you can hear English spoken.
      • Go to an English school, an embassy or an English-speaking Chamber of Commerce.
      • Go to a museum and take an audio tour in English.
      • Follow a guided tour in English of your city.
      • Call or visit a hotel where tourists stay and get information in English about room rates, hotel availability or hotel facilities.
      • Call and listen to information recorded in English, such as a movie schedule, a weather report or information about an airplane flight.
    • Watch or listen to programs recorded in English.
    • Go to Internet sites to practice listening.
    • Get CDs with full-length lectures. Full-length lectures/presentations are available from UC Berkeley.
    • Practice speaking English with others.
      • Look for a conversation partner and exchange language lessons with an English speaker who wants to learn your language.


  1. Begin to prepare for academic situations.
    • Visit academic classes, cultural centers, or museums where people are invited to talk in English about their work.
      • Before you listen to a lecture in English, read assigned chapters or background information on academic topics.
      • Visit lectures on a wide variety of topics.
    • Record lectures or presentations and replay them several times.
      • Listen to different types of talks on various topics, including subjects in which you have limited or little background.
      • Listen to short sections several times until you understand the main points and the flow of ideas.
      • Stop the recording in the middle and predict what will come next.
      • Practice listening to longer lectures.
    • Become familiar with the organization or structure of lectures.
      • Pay attention to the structure.
        • lecture or presentation — introduction, body, and conclusion
        • narrative story — beginning, middle, and end
      • Learn to recognize different styles of organization.
        • theory and evidence
        • cause and effect
        • steps of a process
        • comparison of two things
    • Think carefully about the purpose of a lecture.
      • Try to answer the question, "What is the professor trying to accomplish in this lecture?"
      • Write down only the information that you hear. Be careful not to interpret information based on your personal understanding or knowledge of the topic.
        • Answer questions based on what was actually discussed in the talk
    • Develop a note-taking strategy to help you organize information into a hierarchy of main points and supporting details.
      • Make sure your notes follow the organization of the lecture.
      • Listen for related ideas and relationships within a lecture and make sure you summarize similar information together.
      • Use your notes to write a summary.


  1. Listen for signals that will help you understand the organization of a talk, connections between ideas, and the importance of ideas.
    • Listen for expressions and vocabulary that tell you the type of information being given.
      • Think carefully about the type of information that these phrases show.
        • opinion (I think, It appears that, It is thought that)
        • theory (In theory)
        • inference (therefore, then)
        • negatives (not, words that begin with "un," "non," "dis," "a")
        • fillers (non-essential information) (uh, er, um)
      • Identify digressions (discussion of a different topic from the main topic) or jokes that are not important to the main lecture [It’s okay not to understand these!]
    • Listen for signal words and phrases that connect ideas in order to recognize the relationship between ideas.
      • Think carefully about the connection between ideas that these words show.
        • reasons (because, since)
        • results (as a result, so, therefore, thus, consequently)
        • examples (for example, such as)
        • comparisons (in contrast, than)
        • an opposing idea (on the other hand, however)
        • another idea (furthermore, moreover, besides)
        • a similar idea (similarly, likewise)
        • restatements of information (in other words, that is)
        • conclusions (in conclusion, in summary)
    • Pay attention to intonation and other ways that speakers indicate that information is important.
      • Listen for emotions expressed through changes in intonation or stress.
        • Facial expressions or word choices can indicate excitement, anger, happiness, frustration, etc.
      • Listen how native speakers divide long sentences into "thought groups" to make them easier to understand. (A thought group is a spoken phrase or short sentence. Thought groups are separated by short pauses.)
        • Listen to sets of thought groups to make sure you get the whole idea of the talk
      • Listen for important key words and phrases which are often ...
        • repeated
        • paraphrased (repeated information but using different words)
        • said louder and clearer
        • stressed
      • Listen for pauses between important points.
        • In a lecture, pay attention to words that are written on the board.



Choose your performance level below:



  1. Read as much and as often as possible in English.
    • Read texts on a variety of topics.
      • Read both academic and non-academic materials.
      • Read about subjects that interest you and that DON'T interest you.
    • Write basic questions to test your understanding of a text.
      • Write questions and answers about the first paragraph. Then guess what might be discussed in the next paragraph.
    • Use your knowledge of grammar to understand difficult sections of a passage.
      • Think carefully about the relationship between independent and dependent clauses.
      • Look for words that refer back to some information given in a previous section of the text.
        • Look at pronouns and find the nouns that they refer to
        • Look at relative pronouns (who, that, which, whom, whose) used in adjective clauses (for example, The student whose classmates are taking the TOEFL® test....) and find the nouns they refer to
    • Work with a reading partner. Read different newspaper or magazine articles.
      • Write questions about the articles you read.
      • Exchange articles with your partner and try to answer your partner's questions.


  1. Continually expand your vocabulary knowledge.
    • It is important to increase your vocabulary on many subjects because you will have to read about various topics at the university.
      • Review lists of terms used in academic textbooks.
    • Make a plan for studying new words.
      • Write a new word on one side of a card and the definition on the back.
        • Write the sentence you saw the word in to help you learn correct usage
        • Study the words often and always mix up the cards
      • Group the words by topic or meaning. Study the words as a list of related words.
      • Study vocabulary by making a list of opposites (words with different meanings) and synonyms (words with similar meanings)
        • opposites (relevant-irrelevant; abstract-concrete)
        • synonyms (excellent, outstanding, superb)
      • Review the new words on a regular basis so that you remember them.
    • Expand your vocabulary by analyzing the parts of a word. This will help you understand some unknown words that you see.
      • Study roots (a part of a word that other parts are attached to)
        • -spect- (look at)
        • -dict- (say)
      • Study prefixes (a part of word attached to the beginning of a word)
        • in- (into)
        • pre- (before)
      • Study suffixes (part of a word attached at the end of the word)
        • -tion (inspection)
        • -able (predictable)
      • Study word families (the noun, verb, adjective, or adverb forms of related words)
        • enjoyment (noun)
        • enjoy (verb)
        • enjoyable (adjective)
        • enjoyably (adverb)
    • Use the context to guess the meaning of unknown words.
      • Notice when difficult terms are defined in the text.
      • Look for examples with an explanation of the meaning of a word.
      • Look at the other words and structures around an unknown word to try to understand it.
    • Use resources to help you study vocabulary.
      • Use an English-English dictionary to learn correct meaning and word usage.
      • Get calendars that teach a new word each day or websites that will send you an e-mail with a new word each day.
      • Study the vocabulary you find on university websites that give information about the university and the faculty teaching at the school.
    • Practice correct usage by making sentences with new words. This will also help you remember both the meaning and the correct usage of the words.
      • Have a teacher check your sentences.
      • Review the new words on a regular basis so that you remember them.


  1. Study the organization of academic texts and overall structure of a reading passage.
    • Read an entire passage from beginning to end.
      • Look for the main ideas of the article.
      • Look for the supporting details.
        • Pay attention to the relationship between the details and main ideas
    • Learn to recognize the different styles of organization that you find in articles in English in order to understand the way an article is structured
      • Pay attention to the connecting words/transitions used for specific relationships.
        • steps (first, second, next, finally)
        • reasons (because, since)
        • results (as a result, so, therefore)
        • examples (for example, such as)
        • comparisons (in contrast, on the other hand)
        • restatements of information (in other words, that is)
        • conclusions (in conclusion, in summary)
    • Outline a text to test your understanding of the structure of a reading passage.
      • Begin by grouping paragraphs that address the same concept.
        • Look for ways that main ideas in one paragraph relate to the main points of the next paragraph
        • Write one sentence summarizing the paragraphs that discuss the same idea
      • Look at connections between sentences.
        • Look at how the end of one sentence relates to the beginning of the next sentence
        • Think about the connection between the ideas of the two sentences
        • Combine the sentences using appropriate transitions words to show the relationship between ideas
    • Write a summary of the entire passage.




  1. Read as much and as often as possible in English.
    • Read texts on a variety of topics.
      • Read both academic and non-academic materials.
      • Read about subjects that interest you and that DON’T interest you.
    • Write basic questions to test your understanding of a text.
      • Write questions and answers about the first paragraph. Then guess what might be discussed in the next paragraph.
    • Use your knowledge of grammar to try to comprehend difficult sections of a passage.
      • Think carefully about the relationship between independent and dependent clauses.
      • Look for words that refer back to some information given in a previous section of the text.
        • Look at pronouns and find the nouns that they refer to
        • Look at relative pronouns (who, that, which, whom, whose) used in adjective clauses (for example, The student whose classmates are taking the TOEFL test....) and find the nouns they refer to
    • Work with a reading partner. Read different newspaper or magazine articles.
      • Write questions about the articles you read.
      • Exchange articles with your partner and try to answer your partner's questions.


  1. Continually expand your vocabulary knowledge.
    • It is important to increase your vocabulary on many subjects because you will have to read about various topics at the university.
      • Review glossaries/lists of terms used in academic texts.
    • Develop a system for studying new words.
      • Write each word on a card and mix up the cards each time you study them.
        • Write the context (the sentence the word was used in) to help you learn correct word usage
      • Group the words according to topic or meaning and study the words as a list of related words.
      • Study vocabulary by making a list of opposites (words with different meanings) and synonyms (words with similar meanings).
        • opposites (relevant-irrelevant; abstract-concrete)
        • synonyms (excellent, outstanding, superb)
    • Expand your vocabulary by analyzing the parts of a word. This will help you understand some unknown words that you see.
      • Study roots (a part of a word that other parts are attached to)
        • -spect- (look at)
        • -dict- (say)
      • Study prefixes (a part of word attached to the beginning of a word)
        • in- (into)
        • pre- (before)
      • Study suffixes (part of a word attached at the end of the word)
        • -tion (inspection)
        • -able (predictable)
      • Study word families (the noun, verb, adjective, or adverb forms of related words)
        • enjoyment (noun)
        • enjoy (verb)
        • enjoyable (adjective)
        • enjoyably (adverb)
    • Use the context to guess the meaning of unknown words.
      • Notice when difficult terms are defined in the text.
      • Look for examples with an explanation of the meaning of a word.
      • Look at the other words and structures around an unknown word to try to understand it.
    • Use resources to help you study vocabulary.
      • Use an English-English dictionary to learn correct meaning and word usage.
      • There are calendars that teach you a new word each day or websites that will send you an e-mail with a new word each day.
      • Study the vocabulary you find on university websites that give information about the university and the faculty teaching at the school.
    • Practice correct usage by making sentences with new words. This will also help you remember both the meaning and the correct usage of the words.
      • Have a teacher check your sentences.
      • Review the new words on a regular basis so that you remember them.


  1. Study the organization of academic texts and overall structure of a reading passage.
    • Read an entire passage from beginning to end.
      • Look for the main ideas of the article.
      • Look for the supporting details.
        • Pay attention to the relationship between the details and main ideas
    • Learn to recognize the different styles of organization that you find in articles in English in order to understand the way an article is structured.
      • Pay attention to the connecting words/transitions used for specific relationships.
        • steps (first, second, next, finally)
        • reasons (because, since)
        • results (as a result, so, therefore)
        • examples (for example, such as)
        • comparisons (in contrast, on the other hand)
        • restatements of information (in other words, that is)
        • conclusions (in conclusion, in summary)
    • Outline a text to test your understanding of the structure of a reading passage.
      • Begin by grouping paragraphs that address the same concept.
        • Pay attention to how the key ideas in one paragraph relate to the main points of the next paragraph
        • Write one sentence summarizing the paragraphs that discuss the same idea
      • Look at connections between sentences.
        • Look at how the end of one sentence relates to the beginning of the next sentence
        • Think about the connection between the ideas of the two sentences
        • Combine the sentences using appropriate transitions words to show the relationship between ideas
    • Write a summary of the entire passage.




  1. Read as much and as often as possible. Make sure to include academic texts on a variety of topics written in different genres as part of your reading.
    • Read major newspapers, such as The New York Times or Science Times.
    • Use the websites of National Public Radio (NPR) or the BBC to get transcripts of shows and study the content and new vocabulary you encounter.


  1. Continually expand your vocabulary knowledge.
    • Develop a system for recording unfamiliar words.
      • Write each word on a card and mix up the cards each time you study them. Write the context (the sentence the word was used in) to help you learn correct word usage.
      • Group the words according to topic or meaning and study the words as a list of related words.
      • Review the new words on a regular basis so that you remember them.
    • Increase your vocabulary by analyzing word parts. Study roots, prefixes, and suffixes.
      • Study word families (e.g., enjoyment, enjoy; enjoyable, enjoyably)
    • Use available vocabulary resources.
      • Use a good thesaurus to study various shades of meanings of words.
      • The Longman Language Activator provides "collocations" (words used together).
      • There are online concordancers that search corpora and provide examples of words in context, such as the British national corpus.
    • Practice using context to guess the meaning of unknown words.
    • Continually practice using new words you encounter in your speech and writing. This will help you remember both the meaning and the correct usage of the words.


  1. Think carefully about how ideas are connected within a text. The connections between sentences and the links between paragraphs are critical to complete comprehension.
    • To understand the structure of a reading passage, outline the text.
      • Begin by determining the main idea or concept presented in each paragraph. Remember to distinguish between the main points and the details that exemplify them.
      • Group paragraphs that address the same concept. Think about how the key idea in one paragraph relates to the main point of the next paragraph. If there are several paragraphs that focus on the same idea or concept, synthesize the key points into one main idea.
      • Write one sentence or phrase summarizing the paragraphs that discuss the same idea.
      • Add important details that support each major idea or concept.
    • Learn to recognize different organizational styles in order to understand the way an article is structured.
      • Look for the common patterns of organization that you find in articles.
      • Pay attention to connecting words in order to understand the pattern of organization.
    • Write a summary of a text, making sure that it incorporates the organizational pattern of the original.
      • If the text is a comparison, be sure that your summary reflects that and uses appropriate transition words and phrases for comparison.
      • If the text argues two points of view, be sure both points of view are reflected in your summary and that appropriate transitional words are used.

Note: References to other sources and Internet sites are provided as a service and should not be understood as endorsements of their content.




Choose your performance level below:



  1. Take a conversation class. This will help you improve your fluency and pronunciation in English.
  2. Develop friendships with people who want to speak English with you. If you can't find a native English speaker, find a friend who wants to practice speaking English and promise to speak only English for a certain period of time.
  3. Record yourself speaking in English.
    • Read a simple paragraph and record your voice. Ask a teacher to give you feedback on the recording.
    • Listen to something spoken by a native English speaker. Record yourself repeating the same information, and compare the two.
  4. Practice speaking for a limited time on different topics without a lot of preparation.
    • Write down several questions about various topics.
      • your family
      • your hobbies
      • your friends
      • your school

Select a question and answer it aloud.

    • Ask a friend to give you topics and record yourself discussing them. Ask someone to listen with you and suggest ways for you to improve.
    • Think of a story that you are familiar with. Tell the story to several different people. Try to tell the story faster each time.
  1. Use books that come with audio recordings to study pronunciation, stress and intonation in English.




  1. Take a conversation/pronunciation class. This will help improve your fluency and pronunciation in English.
  2. Develop friendships with people who want to speak English with you. Interaction with others will help you to improve your speaking ability. If you can't find a native English speaker, find a friend who wants to practice speaking English and promise to speak only English for a certain period of time.
  3. Practice speaking for a limited time on different topics without a lot of preparation. Time yourself as you speak.
    • Write down several questions about general topics
      • family
      • friends
      • cities
      • countries
      • places you are familiar with

Select a question and answer it aloud. Try to speak for one minute.

    • Give yourself about 20 seconds to think about what you did yesterday. After 20 seconds, begin to recount what you did. Try to talk for one minute.
      • Pay attention to your use of the past tense.
      • Try to use connecting words and phrases such as first, then, while I was.
    • Give yourself about 20 seconds to think about what you will probably do tomorrow. Try to talk for one minute. After 20 seconds, begin to talk about what you are planning to do.
      • Try to use different forms of the future tense.
  1. Use books that come with audio programs to study pronunciation, stress and intonation in English.




  1. Look for opportunities to speak to native speakers of English. Interaction with others will help improve your speaking ability.
    • Find a speaking partner. Set aside time each week to practice speaking to each other in English.
    • If you can't find a native English speaker, find a friend who wants to practice speaking English and promise to speak only English for a certain period of time.
  2. Practice speaking for a limited time on different topics without a lot of preparation. Time your responses to questions.
    • Make a list of some general speaking topics
      • people persons you admire
      • places you enjoy visiting
      • things you enjoy doing

Think of a specific example for each topic (a parent, the market, reading books) and talk about each for one minute.

    • Select one of the topics above and write down three verbs and three adjectives relevant to the topic. Try to use the words as you speak.
  1. Concentrate on speaking clearly with good pronunciation and intonation. Speak with confidence and open your mouth more widely than you normally do.
    • It is difficult to understand you if you speak word by word. Try to speak in "thought groups."
    • Take a reading passage and mark the thought groups first. Then read it aloud paying close attention to these groups of words and ideas.
    • Get a book on tape or get a transcript from a news report, interview or play.
      • Listen to the performance and mark the pauses, stress and intonation on the transcript.
      • Then read the transcript and try to imitate the pauses, stress and intonation patterns.
  2. Use books that come with audio recordings to study pronunciation, stress and intonation in English.




  1. Look for opportunities to speak to native speakers of English. Interaction with others will improve your speaking ability.
    • Ask a native speaker to provide feedback on your pronunciation problems (if any).
    • Join an Internet voice chat.
  2. Listen to the radio and watch TV and movies. Pay attention to idiomatic usage of the language and different accents or speech patterns that are used.
    • Write down new expressions you hear. Use the expressions in your everyday English conversations.
    • Choose a character from a film or TV show. Repeat the character's words, following the intonation patterns, as he or she speaks. Include the gestures or other body language of the character you are imitating.
  3. Practice speaking for a limited time on different topics without a lot of preparation. Time your responses to questions.
    • Make a list of questions on topics that interest you (for example, hypothetical situations or academic topics). Answer each of the questions aloud. Try to speak for at least one minute.
  4. Use books that come with audio recordings to study pronunciation, stress and intonation in English.




  1. Take a conversation class. This will help improve your fluency and pronunciation in English.
  2. Practice expressing your opinions on general topics with a partner.
    • Make a list of several activities you both have participated in. Tell your partner why you enjoyed, or did not enjoy, one of the activities.
    • Ask your partner to express his or her opinion about another topic on the list.
    • Tell your partner about a short newspaper article you recently read.
    • Explain to your partner why you found the article interesting or important. Be sure to include details and examples in your explanation.




  1. Practice speaking English every day. This will develop your fluency and confidence.
  2. Develop friendships with people who want to speak English with you. Interaction with others will improve your speaking ability. If you can't find a native speaker, find a friend who wants to practice speaking English and promise to speak only English for a certain period of time.
  3. Practice expressing opinions.
    • Read an advice column in the newspaper (such as "Dear Abby" in the United States).
      • Identify the problem being described. Tell a friend about the problem (summarize the problem) and then say what you think would be the best advice.
      • Read the advice given in the column. Compare your suggestions for a solution to the advice given in the column. Talk about the differences with your friend.
    • Read a short newspaper article and give your opinion about it.
  4. Practice summarizing information you heard or read.
    • Read a short newspaper article.
      • Write down important vocabulary from the article and look up the pronunciation of these words or ask an English speaker to tell you how to pronounce them.
      • Summarize the article using the new words and practice your summary several times. Each time you will become more fluent.
    • Watch a short scene from a movie or TV program (about two to three minutes long). Summarize what each character was doing and explain why the character was doing it.
      • Practice the summary and explanation several times; then record yourself as you speak.
  5. Practice pronunciation and intonation by reading aloud.
    • Record yourself so that you can hear your accent; pay attention to your mistakes.
    • Work on pronouncing word endings.




  1. Practice speaking English every day. This will develop your fluency and confidence.
    • Find a speaking partner. Set aside time each week to practice speaking with your partner in English.
    • If you can't find a native English speaker, find a friend who wants to practice speaking English and promise to speak only English for a certain period of time.
  2. Practice speaking about everyday issues relevant to students' lives.
    • Read articles from campus newspapers or on the Internet.
      • Discuss the articles with a speaking partner or friend.
      • Practice summarizing the articles and expressing your opinions about the articles.
    • Listen to a college radio station in your area.
      • Make a list of the kinds of topics being discussed.
      • Use the list to generate discussion topics with your speaking partner or friend.
  3. Concentrate on speaking loudly and clearly with good pronunciation and intonation.
    • Practice speaking in "thought groups." It is difficult to understand you if you speak word by word.
    • Remember to pause after prepositional phrases and related thought groups.
    • Drop your voice and make your intonation go down to indicate that your thought is complete or that a sentence has ended.
    • Add emotion and feeling to what you are saying. Practice the same speech in your native language and pay attention to your hand movements and emotions. Use the same emotion when you give your response in English.
  4. A good resource is the book English for Academic Success, published by Houghton Mifflin. There are 16 books with a companion website.




  1. Look for opportunities to build your fluency in English.
    • Take risks and engage others in conversation in English whenever possible.
    • Join an Internet chat room.
  2. Listen to the radio, and watch TV and movies. Pay attention to idiomatic usage of the language and different accents or speech patterns that are used.
    • Write down new expressions you hear. Try to use the expressions in your everyday English conversations.
    • Choose a character from a film or TV show. Repeat the character's words, following the intonation patterns, as he or she speaks. Include the gestures or other body language of the character you are imitating.
  3. Practice speaking for a limited time on different topics without a lot of preparation. Time your responses to questions.
    • Make a list of questions on topics that interest you (for example, hypothetical situations or academic topics). Answer each of the questions aloud. Try to speak for at least one minute.
  4. Use books that come with audio recordings to study pronunciation, stress, and intonation in English




  1. Take a conversation class. This will improve your fluency and pronunciation in English.
  2. Record yourself speaking in English.
    • Practice reading a short poem aloud. Then record yourself as you read the poem again.
    • Read a simple paragraph and record yourself summarizing it.
  3. Work on your pronunciation.
    • Find a pronunciation partner to work with.
    • Make a list of three or four new English words each day and practice pronouncing the words correctly.
    • Practice using the words by teaching a friend or your pronunciation partner.
  4. Increase your vocabulary and improve your grammar in your speech.
    • Study basic grammar rules so that you speak grammatically correctly.
    • As you learn new words and expressions, practice pronouncing them clearly. Record yourself as you practice.
    • Take risks. Use new words and expressions every day in your speech.
  5. Use books that come with an audio recording or go to Internet sites to help you with listening and speaking.




  1. Record yourself speaking in English.
    • Read a paragraph from an academic course book and practice summarizing the paragraph aloud.
    • Practice several times and then record your summary.
    • Listen to your summary again a week later. Transcribe what you said and review your mistakes.
  2. Practice speaking about current events.
    • Read newspaper articles, editorials, cultural events, etc. in English. Share the information that you read with a friend in English.
    • Visit a university class and take notes in the class. Then use your notes to tell a friend about some of the information you heard in English.
    • Develop your academic vocabulary. Write down important new words that you come across while reading or listening and practice pronouncing them.
    • Listen to a weather report and take notes on what you heard. Then give the weather report to a friend in English.
  3. Practice speaking for a limited time on academic topics.
    • Write down important words and phrases from a textbook or from a short radio or TV program in English.
    • Write three questions about the material you read or heard.
    • Try to answer the questions by speaking aloud. Begin speaking with a general statement or idea.
    • Support your ideas with details, reasons or examples from the texts. Use appropriate connecting words to make the relationship between ideas clear.
      • first
      • second
      • for example
      • therefore
      • because




  1. Practice speaking for a limited time on different academic topics.
    • Read a short article from a newspaper or a textbook. Write down key content words from the article.
    • Write down two or three questions about the article that include the content words.
    • Practice answering the questions aloud. Try to include the content words in your response.
    • After practicing, record your answers to the questions.
  2. Concentrate on speaking clearly with good pronunciation and intonation.
    • Try to speak in "thought groups." It is difficult to understand you if you speak word by word.
      • Take a reading passage and mark the thought groups first. Then read it aloud paying close attention to these groups of words and ideas.
      • Get a book on tape or get a transcript from a news report, interview or play. Listen to the performance and mark the pauses, stress and intonation on the transcript. Then read the transcript and try to imitate the pauses, stress and intonation patterns.




  1. Record yourself and then listen and transcribe what you said.
    • Read a short article from a newspaper or textbook. Record yourself summarizing the article.
    • Transcribe the recording and review the transcription. Think about other ways to say the same thing.
    • Ask a teacher or English-speaking friend to review the transcription and mark any errors.
    • Pay attention to your vocabulary and grammar mistakes.
    • Correct the errors and check your pronunciation.
    • Write down any changes to vocabulary and grammar you think will improve the recording.



Choose your performance level below:



  • Read and listen to academic articles and other material in your own language. Take notes about what you read and hear.
    • Start out taking notes in your own language and then take notes in English.
    • Summarize the points in complete English sentences.
    • Ask your teacher to review your writing and help you correct your errors.
    • Gradually decrease the time it takes you to read the material and write these summaries.
    • Practice typing on a standard English (QWERTY) keyboard.
  • Listen to recorded lectures in English. Practice finding the main points and taking notes.
    • Stop the recording every 20–30 seconds and write down the main points.
    • Replay the recording to check your notes and add information you may have missed.
    • Use your notes to write out these ideas in fuller, more complex English sentences.

 

  • Learn important phrases that help you figure out what is happening.
    • Determine who the source of the information is.
      • The speaker
      • Someone else the speaker is talking about
    • Find out how certain the information is.
      • Might be versus is
    • Listen for words that indicate the main ideas being discussed.
      • point
      • factor
      • issue
  • Practice writing grammatically correct sentences and use appropriate words to summarize information from text and lecture material.
    • Each week focus on a different aspect of English grammar. Complete grammatical exercises that reinforce this aspect.
    • Record news broadcasts and informational programs in English from the radio or television.
      • Practice listening and writing grammatical sentences about what you hear the newscaster say.
      • Ask your teacher or a friend review your work.
    • Read factual informational articles in English.
      • Underline sentence structures and words you are not familiar with.
      • Ask your teacher or a friend to help you understand what they communicate.

 

  • Learn to pay attention to differing ideas about a topic, and to find the similarities anddifferences of opinions.
    • Look at different articles about the same topic (for example, editorials in the newspaper). Make a list of the similarities and differences of opinions about that topic.
    • Take a controversial cultural issue and write about how your culture understands it. Then compare your ideas with someone from another culture.
    • Study expressions that are used to compare and contrast ideas
      • in contrast
      • on the other hand
      • however
      • but
      • although
      • similarly
      • like




  • Practice finding main points.
    • Ask a friend to record news and informational programs in English from the television or radio, or download talks or lectures from the Internet.
      • Listen and take notes. Stop the recording about every 30 seconds to write out a short summary of what you heard.
      • Replay the recording to check your summary. Mark places where you are not sure if you have understood what was said or if you are not sure you have expressed yourself well.
      • Ask your teacher to review your summary to see if you have accurately understood what you listened to and if you have accurately expressed your understanding in English.
      • With a teacher or friend, listen to the recording again and pay close attention to the places where you had difficulty understanding.
  • Read two short articles or essays that take related or opposite views on the same topic or issue.
    • Outline each text and compare the main points.
    • Write a summary of each one and have someone check your outlines.
    • Do another writing task in which you explain the ways in which these points are related, the ways they are different, or the ways in which one article supports the other or makes you look at the other in a different way.

 

  • Read one lengthy article in English from a magazine or a website each day.
    • Outline the article.
    • Write a summary of it in English as quickly as you feel comfortable.
    • Ask your teacher to review your summary to see if your sentences are grammatically correct and if your sentences and vocabulary have accurately expressed the ideas from the original source.
    • If you are writing many short, simple sentences, try to combine related ideas into more lengthy, complex sentences.
  • Read short but interesting academic articles in magazines and on websites in your own language each day.
    • Translate them into complex, accurate sentences in English.
    • Ask your teacher to review your translations for accuracy of content, vocabulary and grammar.
    • Learn to recognize common errors you make so you can correct these on your own.

 

  • Practice combining information that you have heard and read in a written summary.
    • Read a text before listening to a talk on the same subject. Make a list of the similarities and differences of information presented.
    • Read an editorial on a subject. Then talk to someone about it and listen to what they say about the issues. Then write a summary of the different views.
  • Get a book that teaches the different types of connecting words. These expressions show the relationship between sentences and paragraphs.
    • Know expressions that show
      • reasons (because, since)
      • results (as a result, so, therefore)
      • examples (for example, such as)
      • comparisons (in contrast, on the other hand)
      • a process or list (first, second, then)
      • conclusions (in conclusion, in summary)




  • Practice listening to lectures and conversations in English.
    • Record news and informational programs in English from the television or radio, or download talks or lectures from the Internet.
    • Listen to these programs and take notes on the important points. Summarize the programs in English.
    • Listen to them again to check your notes and summaries for accuracy.
  • Practice analyzing reading passages in English.
    • Read two articles or chapters on the same topic or issue.
    • Write a summary of each, and then explain the ways they are similar and the ways they are different.
    • Practice combining listening and reading by searching for readings related to talks and lectures you or a friend or a teacher can find.
    • Develop your vocabulary, grammar, reading, listening and writing skills through extensive reading and listening in a variety of increasingly challenging academic areas.
    • Write summaries and comparisons of what you have read.
    • Get feedback from a teacher or friend on your comprehension, language and writing.




  • Practice writing daily.
    • Keep a journal. Write your opinions about things that you experience or topics in which you are interested.
      • Start out writing in your own language. This will help you get used to writing and will build confidence in your writing ability.
      • When you begin to feel more comfortable writing, keep a journal in English.
    • Take a writing class. This will give you lots of writing practice and a teacher will show you ways to improve your writing.
    • Find a pen pal or writing buddy. Write email messages or letters to each other.
    • Practice typing on a standard English (QWERTY) keyboard.
  • Pay attention to your grammar and sentence structure.
    • Study the basics of English grammar and develop your vocabulary.
    • Practice writing correct sentences in English. Begin by writing simple sentences.
    • Make sure that each sentence has a subject and a verb, and that the subject agrees with the verb.
      • The student likes...; The students like...
    • Take two of your sentences and practice combining them.
    • Reread what you write. Look for and correct mistakes.

 

  • Study the organization of good paragraphs and essays. A good paragraph discusses ONE main idea. This idea is usually written in the first sentence, which is called the topic sentence. Each paragraph should discuss one aspect of the main idea of the essay.
    • Write paragraphs in English that focus on one main idea and contain several complete sentences that explain or support that idea.
    • Ask your teacher to review your paragraphs for correctness.
  • Think about who will be reading your writing. In some situations you need to write in a formal manner and your sentence structure, vocabulary use and general style should reflect that.

 

  • Read a lot in English. This will help you recognize good writing styles.




  • Pay attention to how ideas support a position and practice generating ideas to support a position.
    • Read articles and essays that express opinions about an issue (for example, a social, environmental or educational issue).
      • Identify the writer's opinion or opinions.
      • Notice how the writer addresses possible objections to the opinion, if they are present.
      • Outline the article and note the ways the writer supports the ideas.
    • Write a response to the article or essay in English, taking the opposite viewpoint.
      • Outline your response.
      • Note the methods you use to support your ideas.
    • Reread what you have written.
      • Make sure your supporting ideas are clearly related to your main point.
      • Note what method you use to develop each of your supporting points.
      • Make sure you have developed each of your points in detail. Is there anything more you could have said to strengthen your points?
  • Pay attention to how you organize ideas and think about how a reader who isn’t familiar with your topic is going to be able to follow the information you want to present.
    • Spend time planning and thinking about how to organize your ideas. Your reader should be able to understand how your essay is organized.
    • Have a friend or a teacher outline your essay so that you can see if others can recognize your method of organization.
    • Make sure you are using the right words to connect your ideas and supporting information in the way you want your reader to understand them.
      • Remember that your reader doesn’t know what you know or what you intend. Is there any way your reader might misunderstand? If so, consider revising how you present and explain your ideas.
      • Ask your teacher to check your use of topic sentences, paragraphs, and connecting words, phrases, and sentences. Did you use these correctly and effectively?

 

  • Think about who will be reading your writing. In some situations you need to write in a formal manner and your sentence structure, vocabulary use and general style should reflect that.
  • Work to expand the types of sentences you write and increase your vocabulary.
    • Write paragraphs in English that contain several complete sentences.
      • Study the basics of English grammar.
      • Develop your vocabulary.
      • Practice writing correct sentences in English.
      • Ask your teacher to review your sentences for correctness.
    • Create your own dictionary of English words.
    • Use those words in your own writing.
    • Try writing longer and more complex sentences instead of short, simple sentences.
    • Focus on appropriate sentence formation and accurate word choice.
    • Read short but interesting academic articles in magazines and on websites in your own language each day.
      • As you feel comfortable, write the ideas from what you read in complex, accurate sentences in English.
      • Ask your teacher to review what you have written for accuracy of content, vocabulary, and grammar.

 

  • Make your writing clear by avoiding grammatical mistakes.
    • Avoid using vague words and phrases.
    • Focus on a different aspect of English grammar each week and complete grammatical exercises that reinforce this aspect.
    • Read an article or essay in English in a magazine or on a website each day.
      • Summarize and respond to it in English.
      • Proofread and revise your work.
      • Ask your teacher to review your writing to see if your sentences are grammatically correct and if your sentences and word choice express ideas clearly.

 

  • Read a lot in English. This will help you recognize good writing styles.




Congratulations on writing an excellent essay! You can organize, develop and express your ideas well in English. However, all writers want to improve, so here are some points to keep in mind for the future.

  • Continue to improve your ability to express opinions by studying the ways that published writers express their opinions.
    • Read articles and essays written by professional writers that express opinions about an issue (for example, a social, environmental or educational issue).
      • Identify the writer's opinion or opinions.
      • Notice how the writer addresses possible objections to the opinion, if the writer discusses these.
      • Outline the article and note the different ways the writer supports the ideas.
      • Write a response to the opinion essay or article in English, taking the opposite viewpoint.
      • Outline your response, noting the methods you used to support your ideas.
  • Continue to develop your ability to express and organize ideas by outlining and recognizing the ways that professional writers present their ideas.
    • Read articles and essays and describe how they are organized.
    • Pay attention to the language the writers use to guide the readers’ understanding of how the parts of the article are connected.
    • Write summaries and responses to what you have read.
    • Think about how you want to organize your writing before you begin. You should have a clearly understood main idea and your supporting ideas should be relevant and developed with explanations, examples, and reasoning. A good strategy is to organize your main ideas into paragraphs that each have a topic sentence that clearly relates to your main point.
    • Use appropriate linking devices to make sure your reader can follow the ways in which you relate your information and connect your supporting ideas to your main point.
    • Get feedback from a teacher or friend on your use of language and how you have organized your ideas.
    • Continue to develop your vocabulary, grammar and writing skills through extensive reading in challenging academic areas.